Craig Martin

Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Ph.D., Duke University, 1980
Primary office:
785-864-3645
Haworth Hall


Dr. Martin studies the biochemical, physiological, anatomical, and morphological responses of plants to stressful environments.

Much of my labs' effort is focused on the ecophysiology of plants having different photosynthetic pathways, e.g., Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), C4, and C3. In addition, we are interested in the potential ecophysiological significance of variations or intermediacy in these pathways, including CAM-cycling, C3-CAM intermediacy, and C4-CAM intermediacy. Recent projects receiving attention in the lab include the following: ecophysiological consequences of soil burial in species of Lithops, or "living stones," potential water conservation associated with CAM-cycling in succulents growing on rock outcrops in the Midwest, the multiple mechanisms underlying high water-use efficiency in CAM plants, the potential effect of nocturnal malic acid accumulation on the water relations of CAM plants, the importance of C4 taxa during old-field succession in the Midwest, ecophysiology of several C4 prairie grasses relative to their microclimate, and the evolution of CAM in a diverse array of vascular plants.

Another emphasis of our research efforts centers on an elucidation of the physiological and morphological adaptations of plants to the epiphytic habitat in the tropics and subtropics. Most of this research features epiphytic bromeliads, especially members of the genus Tillandsia, many of which are CAM plants. We are interested in learning how such plants survive the aerial or arboreal environment while lacking functional roots, often lacking an ability to store substantial amounts of water, and facing scarce elemental nutrient availability. Specific research projects have included studies of shade adaptations in epiphytic bromeliads, adaptations and responses to drought stress in these plants, the impact of CAM on the water relations of such epiphytes, and the effects of dense epidermal trichome cover on gas exchange in atmospheric species of Tillandsia.

Not all the research in my lab is limited to CAM plants and epiphytic bromeliads. We pursue any questions about the ecological aspects of physiological and morphological adaptations of plants to stress. Such studies include comparisons of the water relations of different types of prairie plants, investigations of the degree of competitive interactions among weeds and prairie plants, sun/shade adaptations in mosses and grasses, effects of leaf age on photosynthesis and transpiration in tropical trees, the potential importance of water movement between leaves during drought stress, effects of space exposure on seed and seedling vigor, and effects of atmospheric pollutants on the ecophysiology of trees and crop plants.

By the way, the bizarre plant next to me in the above photograph is Welwitschia mirabilis, endemic to the Namib Desert in Namibia. This unusual plant, despite its appearance, has only two leaves, and is related to gymnosperms. It was originally reported to be a CAM plant, then the initial evidence was refuted, but a recent report indicates that these odd plants can indeed engage, to some degree, in CAM photosynthesis. Regardless, its physiology, as well as its appearance and evolutionary history, remain intriguing.

Selected Publications

  • Barve, N. C. E. Martin, and A. T. Peterson.  2015. Climatic niches and flowering and fruiting phenology of an epiphytic plant (Tillandsia usneoides).  AOB Plants 7: plv108. Doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plv108.
     
  • Lee, Y.-C. T.-C. Lin, C. E. Martin.  2015.  Leaf anthocyanin, photosynthetic light-use efficiency, and ecophysiology of the South African succulent Anacampseros refescens (Anacampserotaceae).  South African Journal of Botany 99(1): 122-128.
  • Barve, N., C. E. Martin, N.A. Brunsell, and A. T. Peterson. 2014.  The role of physiological optima in shaping the geographic distribution of Spanish moss.  Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 633-645.
  • Martin, C. E. and S. Francke.  2014.  Oxygenation function of Cypress Knees in Taxodium distichumInternational Journal Plant Science 176-170-173.
  • Chen, Y.-C, Martin C. E., Lin T.-C. 2014. Ecophysiology of leaf guttation: effects of guttation prevention on photosynthesis and transpiration in leaves of Alchemilla mollis. Photosynthetica 51(3): 371-376.
     
  • Chiang, J.-M., Lin, T.-C., Luo, Y.-C., Chang, C.-T., Martin, C.E. 2013. Relationships among rainfall, leaf hydrenchyma, and Crassulacean acid metabolism in Pyrrosia lanceolata (L.) Fraw. (Polypodiaceae) in central Taiwan. Flora 30 208(5-6):343-350.  Doi: 10.1016/j.flora 2013.04.007
     
  • Martin CE, EA Brandmeyer, and RD Ross. 2012. Ecophysiological function of leaf ‘windows’ in Lithops species – ‘Living Stones’ that grow underground.  Plant Biology 15(1): 243-247.
  • Martin CE, G. Rux, WB Herppich. 2012. Responses of epidermal cell turgor pressure and photosynthetic activity of leaves of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Bromeliaceae) after exposure to high humidity.  Journal of Plant Physiology 170(1): 70-73. Doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2012.08.013
  • Martin, C. E., E. J. Mas, L. Lu, and B. L. Ong. 2010. "The photosynthetic pathway of the roots of twelve epiphytic orchids with CAM leaves" Photosynthetica. 48. 42-50.
  • Martin, C. E.. 2010. "The occurrence of plants with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in tropical and subtropical rain forests with very high rainfall" Taiwan J. Forest Sci.. 25. 3-16.
  • Herrera, A., C. E. Martin, and E. Medina. 2010. "Induction by drought of crassulacean acid metabolism in the terrestrial bromeliad, Puya floccosa" Photosynthetica. 48. 383-388.
  • Martin, C. E., R. (. Hsu, and T. Lin. 2010. "Comparative photosynthetic capacity of abaxial and adaxial leaf sides as related to exposure in two epiphytic ferns in a subtropical rainforest in northeastern Taiwan" Amer. Fern J..
  • Martin, C. E., R. (. Hsu, and T. Lin. 2009. "The relationship between CAM and leaf succulence in two epiphytic vines, Hoya carnosa and Dischidia formosana (Asclepiadaceae), in a subtropical rainforest in northeastern Taiwan" Photosynthetica. 47. 445-450.
  • Egbert, K. J., C. E. Martin, and T. C. Vogelmann. 2008. "The influence of epidermal windows on the light environment within the leaves of six succulents" J. Exp. Bot.. 59. 1863-1873.
  • Martin, C. E., T. Lin, C. Hsu, and S. Lin. 2007. "No effect of host tree species on the physiology of the epiphytic orchid Bulbophyllum japonicum in a subtropical rain forest in northeastern Taiwan" Taiwan J. Forest Sci.. 22. 341-351.
  • Ward, J. K., C. E. Martin, and C. J. Springer. 2007. "Merging plant physiological ecology and gene expression studies in CO2 research: controlled environmental studies take the stage" Seeking Ecological Mechanisms: the Role of Controlled Environments in Global Change Research. edited by Reynolds, J. F. and T. H. Jones.
  • Benz, B. W. and C. E. Martin. 2006. "Foliar trichomes, boundary layers, and gas exchange in 12 species of epiphytic Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae)" J. Plant Physiol.. 163. 648-656.
  • Hsu, C., T. Lin, W. Chiou, S. Lin, K. Lin, and C. E. Martin. 2006. "Canopy CO2 concentrations and Crassulacean acid metabolism in Hoya carnosa in a subtropical rain forest in Taiwan: consideration of CO2 availability and the evolution of CAM in epiphytes" Photosynthetica. 44. 130-135.
  • Martin, S. L., R. Davis, P. Protti, T. Lin, S. Lin, and C. E. Martin. 2005. "The occurrence of Crassulacean acid metabolism in epiphytic ferns, with an emphasis on the Vittariaceae" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 166. 623-630.
  • Chiou, W., C. E. Martin, T. Lin, C. Hsu, S. Lin, and K. Lin. 2005. "Ecophysiological differences between sterile and fertile fronds of the subtropical epiphytic fern Pyrrosia lingua (Polypodiaceae) in Taiwan" Amer Fern J.. 95. 150-159.
  • Martin, C. E., T. Lin, C. Hsu, S. Lin, K. Lin, Y. Hsia, and W. Chiou. 2004. "Ecophysiology and plant size in a tropical epiphytic fern, Asplenium nidus, in Taiwan" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 165. 65-72.
  • Martin, C. E., T. Lin, K. Lin, C. Hsu, and W. Chiou. 2004. "Causes and consequences of high osmotic potentials in epiphytic higher plants" J. Plant Physiol.. 161. 1119-1124.
  • Rabas, A. and C. E. Martin. 2003. "Possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three species of succulents" Annals of Botany. 92. 1-8.
  • Egbert, K. J. and C. E. Martin. 2002. "The influence of leaf windows on the utilization and absorption of radiant energy in seven desert succulents" Photosynthetica. 40. 35-39.
  • Martin, C. E. and V. J. Adamson. 2001. "Photosynthetic capacity of mosses relative to vascular plants" J. Bryol.. 23. 319-323.
  • LeRoux-Swarthout, D. J., V. J. Terwilliger, and C. E. Martin. 2001. "Deviation between δ13C and leaf intercellular CO2 in Salix interior cuttings developing under low light" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 162. 1017-1024.
  • LeRoux-Swarthout, D. J., V. J. Terwilliger, M. Christianson, C. E. Martin, and S. Madhaven. 2001. "Carbon isotopic ratios of atmospheric CO2 affect the δC values of heterotrophic growth in Nicotiana tabacum" Plant Sci.. 160. 563-570.
  • Tremmel, B. and C. E. Martin. 2000. "Survival of deep trunk burial in baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)" Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci.. 103. 42-44.
  • Martin, C. E. and R. S. Wallace. 2000. "Photosynthetic pathway variation in leafy members of two subfamilies of the Cactaceae" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 161. 639-650.
  • Egbert, K. J. and C. E. Martin. 2000. "Light penetration via leaf windows does not increase photosynthesis in three species of desert succulents" J. Plant Physiol.. 157. 521-525.
  • Martin, C. E. and D. J. von Willert. 2000. "Leaf epidermal hydathodes and the ecophysiological consequences of foliar water uptake in species of Crassula from the Namib Desert in southern Africa" Plant Biol.. 2. 229-242.
  • LeRoux-Swarthout, D. J., V. J. Terwilliger, M. Christianson, C. E. Martin, and S. Madhaven. 2000. "Carbon isotope discrimination correlates with a range of ratios of phosphenolpyruvate to total carboxylase activities found in two C3 species" J. Plant Physiol.. 157. 489-493.
  • Martin, C. E., A. V. Tüffers, W. B. Herppich, and D. J. von Willert. 1999. "Utilization and dissipation of absorbed light energy in the epiphytic CAM bromeliad Tillandsia ionantha" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 160. 307-313.
  • Egbert, K. J. and C. E. Martin. 1999. "The influence of leaf “windows” on Crassulacean acid metabolism in the South African succulent Senecio rowleyanus (Asteraceae)" Photosynthetica. 36. 139-147.
  • Woerner, A. C. and C. E. Martin. 1999. "Mechanistic basis of differences in water-use efficiency between a CAM and a C3 species of Peperomia" New Phytol.. 144. 307-312.
  • Thurman, C. M. and C. E. Martin. 1999. "Growth, leaf temperatures, and leaf conductances of C3 forbs and C4 grasses in a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas, USA" Flora. 194. 1-10.
  • Norman, F. J. and C. E. Martin. 1999. "Ecophysiological responses to neighbor removal in an old-field and a prairie in northeastern Kansas, U.S.A." Photosynthetica. 35. 471-476.
  • Marmor, M. S. and C. E. Martin. 1998. "Effects of exposure in space on tomato seeds: Photosynthesis, biomass, and water relations of well-watered and drought-stressed plants" Photosynthetica. 35. 589-596.
  • Nowak, E. J. and C. E. Martin. 1997. "Physiological and anatomical responses to water deficits in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia ionantha (Bromeliaceae)" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 158. 818-826.
  • Stiles, K. C. and C. E. Martin. 1996. "Effects of drought stress on CO2 exchange and water relations in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia utriculata (Bromeliaceae)" J. Plant Physiol.. 149. 721-728.
  • Helliker, B. R. and C. E. Martin. 1996. "Comparative water-use efficiencies of three species of Peperomia (Piperaceae) having different photosynthetic pathways" J. Plant Physiol.. 150. 259-263.
  • Tüffers, A. V., C. E. Martin, and D. J. von Willert. 1995. "Possible water movement from old to young leaves and photosynthesis during drought stress in two succulent species from South Africa, Delosperma tradescantioides and Prenia sladeniana (Mesembryanthemaceae)" J. Plant Physiol.. 146. 177-184.
  • Nowak, E. J. and C. E. Martin. 1995. "Effect of elevated CO2 on nocturnal malate accumulation in the CAM species Tillandsia ionantha and Crassula arborescens" Photosynthetica. 31. 441-444.
  • Kraybill, A. A. and C. E. Martin. 1995. "Crassulacean acid metabolism in three species of the C4 genus Portulaca" Int. J. Plant Sci.. 157. 103-109.
  • Martin, C. E., M. T. Allen, and C. H. Haufler. 1995. "C3 photosynthesis in the gametophyte of the epiphytic CAM fern Pyrrosia longifolia (Polypodiaceae)" American Journal of Botany. 82. 441-444.
  • Martin, C. E.. 1994. "The physiological ecology of the Bromeliaceae" Bot. Rev.. 60. 1-82.
  • Carter, J. P. and C. E. Martin. 1994. "The occurrence of Crassulacean acid metabolism among epiphytes in a high-rainfall region of Costa Rica" Selbyana. 15. 104-108.
  • Martin, C. E., V. S. Loeschen, and R. Borchert. 1994. "Photosynthesis and leaf longevity in trees of a tropical deciduous forest in Costa Rica" Photosynthetica. 30. 341-351.
  • Norman, F. J. and C. E. Martin. 1994. "Growth, photosynthesis, water relations and competition of the old-field species Abutilon theophrasti, Ambrosia trifida, and Helianthus annuus grown under controlled conditions" Photosynthetica. 30. 361-371.
  • Martin, C. E., D. A. Gravatt, and V. S. Loeschen. 1994. "Crassulacean acid metabolism in three species of Commelinaceae" Ann. Bot.. 74. 457-463.
  • Harris, F. S., M. Carter, and C. E. Martin. 1993. "Relationship between ploidal level and CAM in five species of Talinum (Portulacaceae)" Amer. J. Bot.. 80. 533-536.
  • Martin, C. E. and V. S. Loeschen. 1993. "Photosynthesis in the mangrove species Rhizophora mangle L.: No evidence for CAM-cycling" Photosynthetica. 28. 391-400.
  • Martin, C. E. and F. S. Harris. 1993. "Nocturnal respiration rates and malic acid accumulation in five species of Talinum (Portulacaceae) during CAM-cycling" J. Plant Physiol.. 141. 762-764.
  • Schmitt, A. K., C. E. Martin, V. S. Loeschen, and A. K. Schmitt. 1993. "Mid-summer gas exchange and water relations of seven C3 species in a desert wash in Baja California, Mexico" J. Arid Environ.. 24. 155-164.
  • Loeschen, V. S., C. E. Martin, M. S. Smith, and S. L. Eder. 1993. "Leaf anatomy and CO2 recycling during Crassulacean acid metabolism in twelve species of Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae)" Internat. J. Plant Sci.. 154. 100-106.
 
  • Gravatt, D. A. and C. E. Martin. 1992. "Comparative ecophysiology of five species of Sedum (Crassulaceae) under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions" Oecologia. 92. 532-541.
 
  • Harris, F. S. and C. E. Martin. 1991. "Plasticity in the degree of CAM-cycling and its relationship to drought stress in five species of Talinum (Portulacaceae)" Oecologia. 86. 575-584.
  • Martin, C. E., D. A. Gravatt, and V. S. Loeschen. 1991. "Photosynthetic responses of three species to acute exposures of nitrate-and sulphate-containing aerosols" Atmos. Environ.. 26A. 381-391.
  • Martin, C. E., F. S. Harris, and F. J. Norman. 1991. "Ecophysiological responses of C3 forbs and C4 grasses to drought and rain on a tallgrass prairie in northeastern Kansas" Bot. Gaz.. 152. 257-262.
  • Harris, F. S. and C. E. Martin. 1991. "Correlation between CAM-cycling and photosynthetic gas exchange in five species of Talinum (Portulacaceae)" Plant Physiol.. 96. 1118-1124.
  • McCall, K. K. and C. E. Martin. 1991. "Chlorophyll concentrations and photosynthesis in three forest understory mosses in northeastern Kansas" The Bryologist. 94. 60-75.
  • Martin, C. E., V. S. Loeschen, and L. B. Coke. 1990. "Crassulacean acid metabolism in selected terrestrial succulents in southeastern Jamaica, including two species in the Commelinaceae" Oecologia. 84. 99-102.
  • Martin, C. E. and A. K. Schmitt. 1989. "Unusual water relations in the CAM atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae)" Bot. Gaz.. 150. 1-8.
  • Martin, C. E., J. M. McKee, and A. K. Schmitt. 1989. "Responses of photosynthetic O2 evolution to PPFD in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae)" Photosyn. Res.. 21. 145-150.
  • Martin, C. E.. 1988. "Want directions? Look at the compass plant" 4(1). 1-2.
  • Martin, C. E., M. Higley, and W. Wang. 1988. "The ecophysiological significance of CO2-recycling via Crassulacean acid metabolism in Talinum calycinum Engelm. (Portulacaceae)" Plant Physiol.. 86. 562-568.
 
  • Martin, C. E., M. Higley, and W. Wang. 1988. "Recycling of CO2 via Crassulacean acid metabolism in the rock outcrop succulent Sedum pulchellum Michx. (Crassulaceae)" Photosyn. Res.. 18. 337-343.
  • Schmitt, A. K., C. E. Martin, and U. E. Lüttge. 1988. "Gas exchange and water vapor uptake in the atmospheric CAM bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata L.: The influence of trichomes" Botanica Acta. 102. 80-84.
  • Martin, C. E., M. Higley, and W. Wang. 1988. "CAM-cycling and CAM-idling in Drosanthemum hispidum (Mesembryanthemaceae)" J. Plant Physiol.. 132. 303-306.
  • Smith, M. S. and C. E. Martin. 1987. "Photosynthetic responses to PPFD in three forest understory species of the C4 grass genus Muhlenbergia" Bot. Gaz.. 148. 275-282.
  • Martin, C. E. and L. Kirchner. 1987. "Lack of photosynthetic pathway flexibility in the CAM plant Agave virginica L. (Agavaceae)" Photosynthetica. 21. 273-280.
  • Smith, M. S. and C. E. Martin. 1987. "Growth and morphological responses to irradiance in three forest understory species of the C4 grass genus Muhlenbergia" Bot. Gaz.. 148. 141-148.
  • Smith, M. S. and C. E. Martin. 1987. "Field studies of photosynthetic and growth responses to PPFD in three understory species of the C4 grass genus Muhlenbergia" Bot. Gaz.. 148. 456-462.
  • Martin, C. E. and W. W. Adams. 1987. "Crassulacean acid metabolism, CO2¬recycling, and tissue desiccation in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia schiedeana Steud (Bromeliaceae)" Photosyn. Res.. 11. 237-244.
  • Adams, W. W. and C. E. Martin. 1986. "Physiological consequences of changes in life form in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia deppeana (Bromeliaceae)" Oecologia. 70. 298-304.
  • Martin, C. E. and J. L. Jackson. 1986. "Photosynthetic pathways in a midwestern rock outcrop succulent, Sedum nuttallianum Raf. (Crassulaceae)" Photosyn. Res.. 8. 17-29.
  • Adams, W. W. and C. E. Martin. 1986. "Morphological changes accompanying the transition from juvenile (atmospheric) to adult (tank) forms in the Mexican epiphyte Tillandsia deppeana (Bromeliaceae)" Amer. J. Bot.. 73. 1207-1214.
  • Adams, W. W. and C. E. Martin. 1986. "Heterophylly and its relevance to evolution within the Tillandsioideae" Selbyana. 9. 121-125.
  • Norman, F. J. and C. E. Martin. 1986. "Effects of spine removal on Coryphantha vivipara in central Kansas" Amer. Midl. Nat.. 116. 118-124.
  • Martin, C. E., C. A. Eades, and R. A. Pitner. 1986. "Effects of irradiance on Crassulacean acid metabolism in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Bromeliaceae)" Plant Physiol. 80. 23-26.
  • Martin, C. E., K. W. McLeod, C. A. Eades, and A. F. Pitzer. 1985. "Morphological and physiological responses to irradiance in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L." Bot. Gaz.. 146. 489-494.
  • Martin, C. E. and D. A. Warner. 1984. "The effects of desiccation on concentrations and a/b ratios of chlorophyll in Leucobryum glaucum and Thuidium delicatulum" New Phytol.. 96. 545-550.
  • Martin, C. E. and E. A. Peters. 1984. "Functional stomata of the atmospheric epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L." Bot. Gaz.. 145. 502-507.
 
  • Brisco, B., C. Allen, C. Dobson, C. E. Martin, and N. McCarty. 1983. "Leaf area, biomass and percent moisture measurements of corn and soybeans" Remote Sensing Laboratory Technical Memorandum No. 460-4. Remote Sensing Laboratory, University of Kansas Center for Research, Inc.
  • Martin, C. E. and A. K. Zee. 1983. "C3 photosynthesis and Crassulacean acid metabolism in a Kansas rock outcrop succulent, Talinum calycinum Engelm. (Portulacaceae)" Plant Physiol.. 73. 718-723.
  • Martin, C. E., A. E. Lubbers, and J. A. Teeri. 1982. "Variability in Crassulacean acid metabolism: A survey of North Carolina succulent species" Bot. Gaz. 143. 491-497.
  • Martin, C. E.. 1982. "Translocation of nocturnally fixed 14C in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L." Bot. Gaz.. 143. 1-4.
  • Martin, C. E.. 1982. "Do stomata control gas exchange in the CAM epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides?" Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. edited by Ting, I. P. and M. Gibbs. 305-306.
  • Martin, C. E. and S. P. Churchill. 1982. "Chlorophyll concentrations and a/b ratios in mosses collected from exposed and shaded habitats in Kansas" J. Bryol.. 12. 297-304.
  • Martin, C. E., N. L. Christensen, and B. R. Strain. 1981. "Seasonal patterns of g growth, tissue acid fluctuations, and 14CO2 uptake in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss)" Oecologia. 49. 322-328.
  • Martin, C. E. and J. N. Siedow. 1981. "Crassulacean acid metabolism in the epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss): Responses of CO2 exchange to controlled environmental conditions" Plant Physiol.. 68. 335- 339.
  • Martin, C. E.. 1980. "Chlorophyll a/b ratios of eleven North Carolina mosses" The Bryologist. 83. 84-87.
  • Martin, C. E., E. J. Christy, and K. W. McLeod. 1977. "Changes in the vegetation of a South Carolina swamp following cessation of thermal pollution" J. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc.. 93. 173-176.

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